Legal translation is used in the legal system. Translation may be required for the various documents during criminal or civil proceedings including contracts, applications for the patent and trademark registration, transcripts, affidavits, registration documents, expert reports, legal disclaimers, bills of indictment, regulations, laws, confidentiality agreements, approvals and statements, government decrees and statutory rules, letters of credit, technical documents for legal proceedings, licenses, documents for civil or arbitral proceedings.
We can enumerate such documents endlessly, and it is necessary to bear in mind that any material becomes "legal" if it is used in criminal or civil proceedings.
Examples include passports, certificates of death, certificates of births, wills and death orders, immigration records, marriage registration certificates, powers of attorney, evidence of telephone calls, police interrogations, court documents, contracts, complaints, court decisions, documents for adoption, partnerships, contracts of sale, documents for confirmation of ownership or lease of immovable property, insurance policies, instructions on deposit, etc.
The bottom line is when the legal translation is required and whether the document would be used in court or for administrative purposes or not. If, for example, you have moved to another country with your family and have decided to make a will, you need a notarized translation of such a document into the language of the country to which you have moved.
The other question is who has the right to do a legal translation, and how do we get information on the qualifications of such a translator. In Spain, for example, only translators who have been sworn in and who regularly sit for an examination in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Spain can do a legal translation. After passing the exam, they get a special seal. There are no special requirements, exams, or licenses in the United States. There is a voluntary certification by the American Translators Association and the National Association of Court Interpreters. Such organizations hold periodic examinations to confirm the translator's status. Some translators have extensive legal translation experience or have a legal background.
As far as Kazakhstan is concerned, we also do not have any requirements for the translators engaged in legal translations. Therefore, we get only translators and editors with additional legal education involved in the translation of your legal documents.